Therefore, it is important to strengthen the quarantine control on the importation of commodities, especially of transport vehicles at potential donor spots (i.e., border control/border biosecurity system), and to share information networks on invasive species between each region/port for minimizing further risks of biological species such as Spartina. Neira, C., Levin, L. A., Grosholz, E. D. (2005). Change Biol. On the other hand, populations of this species in the San Francisco Bay, California, and China, which were introduced intentionally, had a relatively high genetic diversity (Blum et al., 2007; Bernik et al., 2016). doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02384.x, Pyšek, P., Richardson, D. M. (2010). Generally, it is assumed that invasive species have a low intra-population genetic diversity but have a high inter-population genetic differentiation in introduced ranges compared with those of the region of its origin, which is known as “the founder effect” (Brown and Marshall, 1981). 21 (10), 2542–2551. Presence/absence of the multilocus genotype matches in among individual polymorphic gene loci was analyzed using Software GENALEX ver. (2009). Spartina alterniflora samples (leaf fragments) were collected from the populations which were introduced into Aichi and Kumamoto Prefectures (Figure 1). In this study, we predicted the low frequency of S. alterniflora invasion. (2005). The plant also expands via underground rhizomes. Genetic variation of Spartina alterniflora intentionally introduced to China. 17, 1105–1109. This work is supported by New Technologies for Agriculture Extension grant no. Divers. B. (Poaceae) Introduced Unintentionally Into Japan and Its Invasion Pathway. Biol. Saccaggi, D. L., Karsten, M., Robertson, M. P., Kumschick, S., Somers, M. J., Wilson, J. R. U., et al. doi: 10.1007/s10531-005-2575-5, Zhou, H.-X., Liu, J.-E., Qin, P. (2009). Pollen limitation causes an allee effect in a wind-pollinated invasive grass (Spartina alterniflora). Among these invasive mechanisms, the possibility of S. alterniflora invasion in Japan via intentional introductions is almost impossible, since Japan has no such imports for the reclamation of tidal flats. Environ. The positive and negative effects of exotic Spartina alterniflora in China. Weed Res. Lowe, S., Browne, M., Boudjelas, S. (2000). Agric. However, there were noticeable differences in the trade value with the U.S. ($462,727–$3,452,366) and the East Asian countries (China: $21,693,372–$42,572,609; Taiwan: $78,947–$927,914; Hong Kong: $42,081–$657,448) at Kumamoto Port (northern Kumamoto) which includes the Shirakawa and Tsuboi Rivers, indicating that the value with the East Asian countries was markedly higher than that with the U.S. Distrib. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3180.2007.00559.x, Baumel, A., Rousseau-Guentin, M., Sapienza-Bianchi, C., Gareil, A., Duong, N., Rousseau, H., et al. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. Ministry of the Environment, Japan (2005). Divers. For two years, we studied the roles of propagule pressure, competition, disturbance, and herbivory in the dynamics of this invasion at a typical mangrove habitat, Zhangjiang Estuary, southern China. Genetics 155 (2), 945–959. Mol. Rev. (1991). Seed germination characteristics of invasive Spartina alterniflora Loisel in Japan: implications for its effective management. The microsatellite analysis showed that the mean value for genetic diversity of Japanese S. alterniflora samples were as follows; the Umeda River (h = 0.34, AR = 1.34 ± 0.22), Tsuboi River (h = 0.24, AR = 1.24 ± 0.24), and Oono River (h = 0.39, AR = 1.39 ± 0.20). Ecol. However, it should be taken into consideration that the markers used for the comparison in our study are not exactly the same as those currently reported (Bernik et al., 2016). Oecologia 97 (4), 431–438. 25 (5), 425–444. Regarding the genetic differences among the individuals, the pairwise co-dominant genotypic distances in each Japanese population were calculated using GenAlEx ver. The invasion history of invasive species, especially plants, are estimated directly, for example, using published literature, aerial photographs, and herbarium collections in order to determine the date and place of its first record. The plant invasion dramatically inhibited the growth of pathogenic fungi, which may facilitate the expansion of invasive plants in the intertidal habitats. Fragment analysis was conducted by Macrogen (Seoul, South Korea). To compare the degree of genetic diversity of S. alterniflora in Japan with that in the previous studies (Blum et al., 2007; Bernik et al., 2016), the polymorphic locus rate (P), genotype diversity (g), observed (HO) and expected (HE) values for heterozygosity, gene diversity (h), allelic richness (AR), and coefficient of inbreeding (FIS) were used as indicators. Genetic analysis of cpDNA revealed that all S. alterniflora populations in Japan had a single haplotype (haplotype C4) (Figure 2, Table 1). YM, TH, AN, and DH collected samples. The vertical axis in panel B shows attributed rates of each sample collected in S. alterniflora local populations. We examined trait differences and evolution across geographic clines among continents of the intertidal grass Spartina alterniflora within its invasive and native ranges. To achieve control and/or eradication of invasive S. alterniflora and prevent its future invasion successfully, knowledge about the current status of S. alterniflora in Japan through a population genetic approach is thought indispensable. Current status and environmental effects of Spartina spp. Nevertheless, it suggests that only one S. alterniflora strain or a few individuals with the same genotype might have introduced into each Japanese river at separate timings. Our data suggest that invasive Spartina can create an ecological trap for the native insect Laelia. Spartina invasion in China: implications for invasive species management and future research. Brown, A. H. D., Marshall, D. R. (1981). Influence of seed source upon phenology of flowering of Spartina alterniflora Loisel. J. Appl. Taxonomy: Scientific and Common Names for This Species, Native Spartina Species Resemble Smooth Cordgrass, Additional Information, Biology, Control and Management Resources, Terrestrial (land-dwelling) invasive species, Aquatic (Water-Dwelling) Invasive Species, Public Outreach and Education Materials (Invasive species), How to report an invasive species sighting to EDDMapS, United States Land-Grant University System, Weeds Gone Wild: Alien Plant Invaders of Natural Areas. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02636.x, Qiao, H., Liu, W., Zhang, Y., Zhang, Y.-Y., Li, Q. Q. doi: 10.1002/j.1537-2197.1981.tb06349.x, Taberlet, P., Gielly, L., Pautou, G., Bouvet, J. Figure 2 Frequency and distribution of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) haplotypes in the region of origin (the eastern Unites States) and in the regions where Spartina alterniflora had been introduced intentionally and/or unintentionally (the Pacific coast of the U.S. and the East Asian countries). 2.3.4 (Pritchard et al., 2000) was used for this analysis. Benthic macrofaunal communities of three sites in San Francisco Bay invaded by hybrid Spartina, with comparison to uninvaded habitats. J. Hered. 94 (3), 197–204. Distrib. Received: 27 April 2020; Accepted: 18 August 2020;Published: 07 September 2020. doi: 10.1093/jhered/esg060, Scholz, H., Chen, C.-W., Jung, M.-J. Weeds Gone Wild: Alien Plant Invaders of Natural Areas – Plant Conservation Alliance, Invasive Spartina Project – California Coastal Conservancy, Plant Info and Images – University of Florida, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, Plant Profiles – California Invasive Plant Council, Alaska Natural Heritage Program – University of Alaska, Anchorage, Fire Effects Information System – USDA Forest Service, Marine Invasive Species – National Park Service. Leaf blades which are grey-green in colour can be 20-55cm long and and be up to 5cm in width. doi: 10.2307/2403612. Environmental weeds in Australia and New Zealand: issues and approaches to managemen. 18 (5), 1725–1737. Ecological Genetics: Design, Analysis, and Application (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing). Grasping at the routes of biological invasions: a framework for integrating pathways into policy. doi: 10.2307/3298527. In addition, the formation of a bottleneck (i.e., shifted mode) was expected by the mode shift test in S. alterniflora population in Japan. 22 (22), 4673–4680. High Genetic Diversity With Weak Phylogeographic Structure of the Invasive Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae) in China. The DNA sequences of the trnT–trnL and trnL–trnF were combined into a sequence, which was designated as the trnT–trnF. Ecol. In coastal China, the exotic invasive Spartina alterniflora is preventing the establishment of native mangroves. doi: 10.1007/BF00325879, Hulme, P. E., Bacher, S., Kenis, M., Klotz, S., Kühn, I., Minchin, D., et al. Manage. Plant Sci., 07 September 2020 Founding events in species invasions: genetic variation, adaptive evolution, and the role of multiple introductions. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. The threat of invasive alien species to biological diversity: setting a future course. DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2016.0193 Special Issue: 入侵生态学专辑 • Orginal Article • Previous Articles Next Articles Plant nutrient dynamics and stoichiometric homeostasis of invasive species Spartina alterniflora and native Cyperus malaccensis var. Lockwood, J. L., Hoopes, M. F., Marchetti, M. P. (2007). U.S.A. 99 (4), 2445–2449. doi: 10.1146/annurev-environ-033009-095548, Pyšek, P., Jarošik, V., Hulme, P. E., Pergl, J., Hejda, M., Schaffner, U., et al. 6.5 and then evaluated by principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) (Peakall and Smouse, 2012). Total DNA was extracted from a 0.1 g dry weight tissue sample using a Plant Genomic DNA Extraction Miniprep System (Viogene, Taipei, Taiwan) and following the manufacturer’s instructions. Bioinformatics 28 (19), 2537–2539. Proc. Eds. Genetic admixture accelerates invasion via provisioning rapid adaptive evolution. Die Hybriden Spartina × townsendii und Spartina anglica sind in an der englischen Kanalküste entstanden. doi: 10.1614/IPSM-D-15-00020.1, Lee, C. E. (2002). Resour. (2009). In this study, we assumed that countries or regions having high trade with Japan would be likely to become donor spots for spreading the invasive S. alterniflora irrespective of intentional/unintentional pathways as mentioned before. Distortion of allele frequency distributions provides a test for recent population bottlenecks. B., et al. The collected samples were naturally dried in our laboratory for genetic experiments. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2010.00672.x, Howes, B. L., Teal, J. M. (1994). Despite this, it took approximately 6 years from its first detection to the start at the eradication project. There are some studies that compared the genetic variation of S. alterniflora within and/or among populations between the region of origin (i.e. Search for more papers by this author . It can hybridize with other spartina species. Hollow stems grow from 2 to 4 ft (0.6 to 1.2 m) tall. The hierarchical spatial distribution of chloroplast DNA polymorphisms across the introduced range of Silene vulgaris. Oxygen loss from Spartina alterniflora and its relationship to salt marsh oxygen balance. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 73 (6), 1129–1132. (2007). All names of the haplotypes obtained in this study were assigned according to the method of Blum et al. The cycle sequencing reaction assay was conducted by Macrogen Japan Corporation (Kyoto, Japan) and analyzed using a 3730xl DNA analyzer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). It is suggested that although these individuals have actually grown via seed propagation (i.e., sexual reproduction), they may be considered as clones with exactly the same genotype due to the extreme homozygosity. Flowering occurs in July to November, when densely packed clusters of tan flowers develop. Mar. (1999) suggested that Wilcoxon’s test is most powerful and robust when used with few polymorphic loci. Tracking the invasive history of the green alga Codium fragile ssp. The forward primer was fluorescently labeled with 5′-FAM, TAMRA, and 5′-JOE. Invasion risk in a warmer world: modeling range expansion and habitat preferences of three nonnative aquatic invasive plants. Invasion of Spartina alterniflora has been reported to modify carbon (C) cycling processes and pools of the native salt marsh ecosystems. Categories: all News Bottleneck analysis of Spartina alterniflora intentionally introduced to China: STRUCTURE. Each sample collected in S. alterniflora population was found in the early 1970s to used! Occurrence of an alien species ( Auckland, NZ: IUCN-ISSG ), Saltonstall, K., Smith S.! 1 information on biological invaders when due to unintentional introductions ( 2009 ) cultured shellfishes supported by New for! 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